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PRESERVATION 



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TENNESSEE EflSTMHN CORPORHTION 



KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



PRESERVATIOV 


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\0-D-K 


NATURAL WOOD CREOSOTE 




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COPYRIGHTED 1934 

BY 

TENNESSEE EASTMAN CORPORATION 
KiNGSPORT, Tennessee 



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TENNESSEE EASTMAN C O R P^gpg TION , KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



Decay and Termites — Enemies of 
Wood Constrnction 



PRESENTED on the following pages is a review of the nature and causes of decay 
and a brief description of termites, which have so destructively inva(le<l the country 
within the last few years. In addition to this discussion of decay and termites, we have 
also endeavored to present a plan of treatment which will insure a long and sei-viceable 
life to wood, with protection against both of the enemies of wood construction. If you 
are already acquainted with the facts regarding these two destructive forces, you will 
readily approve our recommendations as to treatment. We hope that the matter as 
presented in the following pages will prove instructive and at the same time interesting. 

WHAT IS DECAY? — Decay in wood is the breaking down of the cell tissues by action 
of tiny plants of the fungus type that take their nourishment from the wood as they 
destroy it. These plants grow from their seeds, just as dandelions or daisies, and as de- 
caying wood is almost everyw^here present, so these seeds (or spores as they are called) 
are everywhere blown about in the air, like tiny bombardments, on everj- piece of ex- 
posed wood, taking root wherever they find suitable places. 




Utt— 

Dry r«)t funkrus (PMria I:. 
crassata) which has infccred 
foundation timbers and posts. 



Right— 

Floor shnwins: dry rot infec- 
tion which is fruiting abun- 
dantly on the surface. 

Illustrations courtesy Forest 
Products Laboratory^ Modi- 
jopif Wuconsin. 




-( Page Three )- 



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TENNESSEE EASTMAN CORF| g gTIQN, KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



WHAT IS DRY ROT?— Dry rot is another form of decay. Certain types of fungi thrive 
in dry places, as they have a way of producing from their action on the wood, enough 
water to sustain them. This type is usually found in poorly ventilated, dark places. 

Other fungi need moisture, therefore, grow faster in checks in the wood, or between the 
surface where two pieces are joined together. As these places usually hold moisture after 
every rain, and may also collect dust and dirt, they offer the best garden for the tiny 
plants. 

WHERE DOES DECAY START?"-Decay must always start at a surface. The term 
"heart rot'' simply means that decay has reached the heart of the tree through a split 
at the sui'face and then spread in what is the oldest part of the tree. Please note the 
illustrations below. 



CHECK 



JOINT 




CONCLUSION 




Couru/y U. S. Department of Agrt- 
cmiture. 



-If ever>' surface (including the walls of checks, cuttings, etc.) can be 
kept free from decay, there is little danger of failure of the 
wood. This point is discussed further under ''Methods of 
Treatment," page 9. 



WHAT ARE TERMITES?-Termites, like bees and ants, 
live in colonies. Their general appearance is so nearly like 
ants that they are commonly called ''white ante." Dur- 
ing a short period in their life cycle, they have wings and 
are blackish in color and may be very often seen in the 




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TENNESSEE EASTMAN CORP? 



TION, KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



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spring and summer. However, during 
their life span as workers, they are 
wingless and not usually observed out 
of their colony. 

Termites shun light and are, therefore, 
rarely seen. They feed on wood and 
readily attack lumber and timbers of 
practically all kinds. To avoid light, 
they usually devour the entire center of 
the wood attacked, leaving only a hollow 
shell. These weakened timbers, of course, 
cannot support the weight for which they 
were designed and frequently collapse, 
causing sagging floors in homes and other 
buildings and serious damage to telephone poles, fence posts, bridges, trestles, and other 
wooden structures. Their menace is so serious that some cities have enacted ordinances 
that all wooden foundations of buildings, including the subflooring, must be treated with 
creosote to prevent termite attack. 



Damage to oak b> the cuiinuon eastern subterranean termite 
(Reticulitermes flavipes). Courtesy U. S, Department of Jgricul- 
ture. 



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A NATIONAL MENACE— The popu- 
lar idea is that termites live only in 
tropical countries. This is a mistake. 
There are 44 species which are distributed 
throughout the country, although, in the 
Southern, Southwestern, and Pacific Coast 
regions where both the subterranean and 
non-subterranean species occur, they are 
more numerous and injurious than else- 
where. 



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Winged sexual adults of an eastern subterranean termite colony. 
Courtesy U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



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TENNESSEE EASTMAN CORP 



I^TION, 



^ 



KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



THE REMEDY ALSO A PREVENTIVE-Buildings can be protected from the attack 
of termites by the use of wood treated with preser\'atives. Termites can also be 
eliminated where already established in buildings by removingwood incontact with theground 
and replacing it with wood that has been treated. This method is recommended by the 
United States Government. 



CONCLL'SION Therefore, if termites can be prevented] and eradicated by treating 
wood with a suitable preservative, then let us consider the type of wood preserver 
which will l>est suit our purpose. 



WHAT IS A I*UESEH\ AT1\ Er-From the conclusions on the prevention of dry rot 
and the prevention and eradication of termites, we must, therefore, prevent the growth 
of fungi and also kill termites. Plainly, the surest way is to poLson both the fungus {slants 
and the insects. This poisoning is called toxif action, and this property varies greatly in 
(|i(T..r-..nt i7v,f.. rials that "" "-<"' as preservatives. 



WHATIS HIOI IHEDOK \ <,<MM)\\(KM) I'HKSKHMH? A wrK)d preserver is of 
value in proiK)rtion to its fulfillment of the following specifications 



1. Powerful toxic (antiseptic) properties. 

2. Penetrating when applied to any wood. 

3. High boiling, so as not to be driven off 
by the heat of the sun. 



4. Insoluble, so as not t/> !.<> washed out by 
water. 

5. Non-injurious to workmen handling it. 

6. Low enough in cost to be used econom- 
icallv. 



One or more of theK properties are found in several materiab tHed for wood pi«erving. 
The combination of all, neceMar>- for the best results, is found in the product manufac- 
tured by the Tennessee Eastman Corporatioo and marketed under the trade name "VO- 
D-K." 



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TENNESSEE EASTMAN C Q R F(|g|^|)TION, KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



Our many years of experience and research have resulted in the development of a wood 
preserver that combines all of the necessary properties. Leading engineers approve the 
preservation of wood with NO-D-K as summarized in the following pages. 



OLD CHARRING METHOD— We all know in the early days the farmer kept his fence 
posts from rotting by putting the butts into the fire until the surface 
was charred. Within the wood, just where the fire had stopped, was 
deposited a layer of creosote (same as NO-D-K) that was formed as 
the outer layer burned — and we know the long life of these charred 
posts. 

THE MODERN, OR NO-D-K METHOD, is to apply to a small 
quantity of lumber the creosote obtained from a large number of 
trees, therefore, the unusual protection which NO-D-K gives is readily 
apparent and easily understood. 




WHAT IS NO-D-K? — NO-D-K is made from true creosote oil obtained by destructive 
distillation of hardwood. It is sharply distinguished from coal-tar oils, which, because 
of their great abundance and cheapness, have been extensively used for wood preserving. 
Coal-tar oils are very toxic (poisonous) to men and animals, as is well known by all who 
have used them, while against fungi they are not nearly as toxic as is the hardwood oil. 
The United States Bureau of Plant Industry in cooperation with the United States For- 
est Products Laboratory, Madison, Wis., has made a study of this question, the results 
of which are thus stated: 

MORE TOXIC THAN COAL TAR — "The toxicity of beechwood creosote, both crude 
and refined, has been determined and found to be much greater, 2 to 4 times, than 
that of coal-tar creosote." 

DOES NOT IRRITATE — ''They (hardwood creosotes) also have a great advantage 



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TENNESSEE EASTMAN CORPS 



TION, KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



over coal-tar creosote in that they do not inflame the skin and are not toxic or poison- 
ous to h;unans or animals."* 

POWERFULLY ANTISEPTIC— "The results show that a 0.05 per cent emulsion 
with the wood tar phenols prevents the growth of the fungus and is about seven times 
as efficient as the coal tar used for comparison. It is because of this high toxic coefficient 
of the wood-tar phenols and the large proportion present in the hardwood creosote that 
this oil has such advantage over coal-tar creosote." 

This superiority of NO-D-K has also been demonstrated for years in practical use in all 
kinds of exposed woodwork. In NO-D-K we use only the portions of hardwood tar most 
valuable for wood preserving, including the high boiling insoluble guaiacol, creosote, and 
related phenolic compounds that have such great toxic action against fungi. 

GREAT PENETRATION— NO-D-K has a great affinity for wood, following the fibres 
and there becoming fixed. It is so penetrating that wooden barrels cannot be used for 
shipping except with great leakage, therefore welded steel dnmis are used as containers. 
When applied to any wood NO-D-K enters quickly. 

HIGH BOILING— You may have noticed how "creosoted" cross arms drip and wood 
paving blocks leach in the sun. NO-D-K distills from about 200° C to 300° C and on 
that account is affected ver>^ little by the heat of the sun. NO-D-K, therefore, sets firmly. 



I 



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WATER 



NO-D-K 



HEAVIER THAN WATER-The specific gravity of NO-D-K is ap- 
proximately 1.100. Thus water is lighter and runs off the treated wood. 
It is insoluble, therefore, little affected by exposure. This prevents 
checking, which always hastens decay, as checks are so favorable to 
germination of fungus spores. 

NON-INJURIOUS— NO-D-K is an effective wood preserver which does 



•Jour. lod. ft Eng. Cbea. 



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TENNESSEE EASTMAN C Q R p| ^^| T I O N , KINGSPORT. TENNESSEE 



not burn or otherwise injure the skin. You know what this means to men who work 
with it as well as to others who come in contact. 

LOW COST — There is false economy in using an inferior preserver even at a much low- 
er price per gallon. The cost of labor is the same and the replacement cost of the wood 
when it shall have rotted out is not altered — and compared with these two items the cost 
of the preservative used is insignificant. Long Hfe of the wood is the vital consideration, 
so that an inferior article is dear at any price. X()-l)-K gives the maximum tvonomy. 



Mt^lliods of Trraliiinil 

There are four general methods of applying a [)reserver to vvoo<l. 

BRUSH METHOD -Brushing is the most usual and economical for general work, either 
old or new. As a rule two coats are put on with a large brush that spreads the oil freely. 

IMMERSION -Where large quantities of timber are to be treated on one jr)b, it pays 
to build a suitable wooden tank lined with tin or galvanized iron in which to dip the wcxxl. 
The period of immersion varies from 30 minutes to 24 hours, according to the depth of 
penetration desired. The oil in the tank is heated by a coil laid in the bottom to which 
steam is usually furnished from the derrick boiler. The penetration of N()-D-K is not 
accomplished to any great extent during the heated period, as the air in the wood cells 
is being driven out by expansion. The wood is then removed quickly to a tank of cold 
oil, or the steam is shut off the coil and the oil allows! ^^ "'uA ovmi- night with the lum- 
ber still immersed in it. 

This latter method requires considerable time, but accomplishes a deep penetration of 
NO-D-K to all pores and cells in the outer parts of the lumber. For hard service, such 
as about dye houses, exposed bridges, and similar places, this long treatment is amply 
justified by the subsequent saving in replacement expense. Where construction work 

[ Page Nine ) — 



'W. 



TENNESSEE EASTMAN C O R P^g[gg TION , KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



is going on simultaneously with the treating, and time is pressing, the two-tank method 
is recommended. 

If the lumber is removed from the hot tank and allowed to cool in the air, all of the 
NO-D-K on the surface is forced into the wood by the atmospheric pressure, but the 
penetration will not be as deep. 




Trvaung by immersion in NO-D-K. all timhtrs and plank for roof of d. g lioa»c at the plant 
of the Philadelphia Dve Works. 

SPRAYING— A still less expensive job is done by spraying, but on account of the thin 
film the gun must be moved over each part of the surface long enough to deposit the re- 
quired amount of the preser^'ative. One of the great advantages of spraying is that the 
creosote reaches all cracks and joints, which is sometimes impossible when the brush 
method is used. This is particularly the case with structures already erected, where spaces 
between planks or timbers must be treated. NO-D-K sprayed into such places will kill 
any fungus that has started, and also help to prevent future infection. 

PRESSURE— Impregnation is secured by pumping the oil hot into the timbers enclosed 
in a large cylinder. This method is expensive but is used for railway ties, etc., 
which are to be subject to injun- from drixing spikes frequently, tamping of road ballast,' 
and other rough usage too harsh for surface treatment. 



Page Ten ^- 



TENNESSEE EASTMAN C Q R P|g|9| TIQN , KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



PROGRESSIVE TREAT- 
MENT— NO-D-K is effective 
in all the above methods. We 
recommend (except for special 
cases) the brush treatment, 
two coats freely applied. By 
"progressive treatment'' we 
mean a further brush coat 
after three to seven years, ac- 
cording to conditions. By this 
time, any checks that are going 
to open will have done so; and 
any decay that may have 
started can be arrested. 




NO-D-K is applied by either brushing, spraying, or dipping. 




The logs of this attractive house have been thoroughly treated with NO-D-K. to protect them against decay and the attacks of 

boring insects, particularly termites. 



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TENNESSEE EASTMAN CORP 




TION, KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



The Treatment of Mills and Factories 

In treating the timbers of mills and factories, the mill engineer encounters unusual con- 
ditions of heat and moisture. The deficiency and high cost of resinous Yellow Pine avail- 
able today for mill construction is overcome by a thorough treatment with NO-D-K, 
which offers to fungus growth a resistance far greater than that possessed by the best of 
resinous woods. 

One great advantage in the use of NO-D-K is the freedom from drippings from roofs and 
ceilings, even under the most trying conditions of heat and moisture. The experience of 
many of the largest manufacturing corporations who have used NO-D-K has proved this 
statement. Below is an example. 



The roof of the dye house of the Philadelphia Dye Works, put on 18 years ago and treat- 
ed with NO-D-K, gave such good service that in 1922 when their new, large dye plant 
was built, NO-D-K was again used for treating the lumber. Seven thousand gallons of 
NO-D-K were used on this job. At the time of this printing the Philadelphia Dye 

Works reports that all 
of the timber treated 
with NO-D-K looks as 
good as the day it was 
put in place and it has 
already lasted three times 
as long as untreated wood 
lasted under similar con- 
ditions. 



Roof of a section of the Philadelphia 
Dye Works plant which is boarded 
solid on the interior and then cov- 
ered on the exterior with roofing 
material. The inside of this plant 
carries intense humidity and damp- 
ness which comes in direct contact 
with the roof boards and trusses, 
all of which have been treated with 
NO-D-K. 




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TENNESSEE EASTMAN COR P |, 



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|TION, KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



NO-D-K Solves Six Problems for the Ensineer 

HIGH GRADE TIMBER is becoming scarce. Low grades of timber are more suscep- 
tible to decay, but when properly treated with NO-D-K their useful life approximates that 
of the best grades. 

LOCAL WOODS are frequently inferior, but they can be used economically if treated 
with NO-D-K, thereby saving greatly on cost. 

THE USE OF GREEN TIMBER is often compulsory- -NO-D-K can be successfully used 
as a preservative. 

PRESERVATION OF WOOD IN ISOLATED PLACES, far removed from creosoting 
plants, is effected by use of NO-D-K. Take the money that would be spent in impregnat- 
ing with an inferior oil under pressure, use a small part for a thorough treatment with 
NO-D-K, place the balance at interest for subsequent re-treatment when necessarj'. 

IN THE TROPICS decay is usually very rapid and is often accelerated by the attack of 
termites. NO-D-K, in the Philippines, Hawaii, Cuba, and Porto Rico, has {)r(>ved the 
best defense against these destructive pests. 

PAINT SHOULD BE REPLACED BY NO-D-K on exposed wood. NO-D-K costs less for 
both material and labor, is 
more durable and gives 
far better protection. The 
creosote is in the wood 
—the paint is on it — 
draw your own conclu- 
sions as to BLISTER- 
ING — PEELING — 
CHECKING — WEAR- 
ING — ROTTING. 



Electric power poles of the Hawaiian 
Electric Company, Honolulu, Ha- 
waii, which have been treated with 
NO-D-K to protect them from the 
ravages of the tropical climate. 
NO-D-K not only protects the poles 
from decay, but also from attacks of 
boring Insects, such as termites. 




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TENNESSEE EASTMAN C O R pSMBTION, KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 





Pier at Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, Hawaii, which has been 
treated with NO-D-K by the U. S. Government to insure 
a long and serviceable life. 



BKL" 



The Pittsburgh Fuel L : , „:., u,.. \U-D-K on the.: .ioi„^c 
bins and reduces expensive repair bills due to decay and dry 



Where NO-D-K May Be Used to Advantage 

FARMS— NO-D-K finds many uses on farms, being particularly effective when used on 
barns, outbuildm^s, fence posts and for disinfection of poultry houses. 

COAI. MINES AM) COAL YARDS- NO-D-K cuts repair bills when used on storage 

bins, t]i)f)Ies, company houses, mine props, ties, and trestles. 

PI BIJC L'l'lIJTlES NO-D-K has been used for years by many public service com- 
panies for preservm^^ woodwork in various departments. Poles and cross arms particularly 
are saved from decay and termite attack by brush coating at vital points. 

I.\Di:STRY N()-D-K is widely used by industrial concerns for treating loading plat- 
forms, sub-floonng, foundation timbers, trestles, and other exposed woodwork. 





Coal yards wiih rough heavy limber used id their construc- 
tion u»c NO-D-K not only to protect against decay, but 
aUo to improve their appearance. 



NO-D-K IS well adapted for ufce on all modern hornet. No 

ffA^k"*!?* "*'''^ ""^ \'?^ exposed woodwork of the home above. 
i\U-U-K protects all exterior woodwork. 



-{Page Fourteen)' 



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TENNESSEE EASTMAN C O R Ff| gi)g TION , KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 

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NO-D-K goes on deck. The Ohio River Transit Company 
uses NO-D-K to protect the decks of their freighters. 



Applying NO-D-K to pile bottoms in the lumber yard in- 
creases their durability and reduces replacement cost. NO- 
D-K also improves their appearance. 



CAMPS— NO-D-K is excellent for treating log cabins and rough wooden buildings of all 
kinds. Its attractive, rich brown color gives a very pleasing effect. 

SEAPORTS AND HARBORS -NO-D-K is an ideal material for treating barges, vessel 
bottoms, posts, pilings, and docks around the waterfront. It is unusually effective against 
marine borers. 

MISCELLANEOUS — Highway bridges, warehouses, frame garages, trestles, and, in fact, 
all wood subject to the ravages of weather and exposed to attacks from termites, or other 
boring insects, may be fully protected with NO-D-K. It insures to wood a long and serv- 
iceable life. 




NO-D-K is excellent for treating trestle construction tim- 
bers. Above is a movable gangway of the United Railways 
of Havana which is treated with NO-D-K. 




Poultry raisers use NO-D-K to treat the interior of their 
poultry houses. NO-D-K kills the parasites and disinfects 
the roosts. 



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TENNESSEE EASTMAN CORPSTO|TION, KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



NO-D-K 



A NATURAL WOOD CREOSOTE OIL 



SPREADING CAPACITY— One gallon covers 60 to 80 square feet, two coats. In 
dipping shingles, figure four gallons per thousand. 



SHIPMENT— In tank cars, or in welded steel drums containing 50 gallons each. Drums 
are included in our price and are not returnable. 



SHIPPING WEIGHT— In tank cars— nine pounds per gallon. In drums, ten pounds 
per gallon, gross. 



FREIGHT RATE— NO-D-K is shipped on the rate applying to wood preservatives. 
Your local freight agent can quote you the rates from Kingsport and you can readily 
figure delivered costs. 



Manufactured only by 

TENNESSEE EASTMAN CORPORATION 



KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



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